Thursday, September 24, 2015

Missionary Chronology: South Africa

1737   Georg Schmidt Moravian Protestant pioneer missionary founds mission among 
1744   Schmidt leaves for Europe after conflict with established Dutch Church      
1788   Certain Cape Christians devote time to slaves’ and Hottentots’ spiritual welfare 
1789   Rev H R van Lier gives sermon on necessity of preaching Gospel ‘to all creatures’
1791   Death of John Wesley, founder of Wesleyan Methodism, in Britain
1792   Moravian MS founded at Genadendal (Vale of Grace) Baviaanskloof
1795   First British Occupation of the Cape
1796   GMS and Scottish Missionary Societies formed
1799   LMS begins work in SA
1799   Dr J T Vanderkemp Dutch-born LMS missionary establishes MS at Bethelsdorp
1800   Mission work among Griqua in Little and Great Namaqualand
1801   William Anderson LMS founds MS at Aakaap and Klaarwater
           J M Kok and Wm Edwards to Dithakong with Daniell and others
1802   The traveller Borchers visits Edwards in the field
1803   Treaty of Amiens: Cape under Batavian Republic
1804   Erasmus Smith works among Khokhoi; in 1830s controversial minister to
           Voortrekkers – he married sister of Gerrit Maritz
1806   Second British Occupation of the Cape
           Effect of 1st & 2nd British Occupations – uncertainty for missions in-between
           LMS station at Warm Bath Great Namaqualand
1809   The traveller Burchell visits Klaarwater station
1808   Britain abolishes slave trade
1812   ‘The Black Circuit’: James Read protests against ill-treatment of Khoikhoi
           Rev John Campbell undertakes commission to visit SA stations
           ABM established
1813   Wesleyan Missionary Society formed in England
1816   Kuruman Mission founded northern Cape: missionaries Hamilton, Read etc
           Barnabas Shaw Wesleyan Methodist arrives in SA
           Lelifontein Mission to Nama people founded (Wesleyan)
1817   John Brownlee LMS arrives at the Cape on Alacrity; leaves the Society same year
1819   Dr John Philip and Rev John Campbell investigate state of LMS missions
           James Archbell Wesleyan starts at Rietfontein, later to
           Bechuana mission
1820   John Philip appointed Superintendant of LMS missions
           Wm Thomson, Glasgow Mission Society at Gwali later at Balfour in Kat River
           John Brownlee establishes Xhosa mission in Tyhume (or Chume) Valley
           SPG appoints W Wright to the mission work at Cape
1821   Robert Moffat, in Namaqualand from 1817, moves to Kuruman
           1822   William Threlfall Wesleyan arrives at Cape, works at Leliefontein
1823   Samuel Broadbent Methodist missionary at Leeudoringstad
           Wesleyan Methodists under William Shaw establish chain of MS
1824   Lovedale MS founded by GMS’s John Bennie and John Ross among the Ngqika     
           Moravians establish Shiloh north of Tyhume MS          
           BMS found MS at Dohne (Stutterheim)
           August: Shaka grants 35 miles of Natal’s coastline to Lieut Francis Farewell
1825   Capt. Allen Francis Gardiner visits Dingane in Zululand
           William Threlfall murdered in Great Namaqualand
1826   John Brownlee who rejoined LMS in 1825, founds MS on Buffalo River
           (King William’s Town)
           James Archbell, Wesleyan missionary, produces first Tswana grammar          
           Leopold Marquard first missionary of Dutch Reformed Church ordained – was
           already engaged in his work at Clanwilliam
1829   William Shaw visits Faku in May re mission to Amapondo
           Rhenish Mission Society sends missionaries on Charles Kerr
           Paris Evangelist Mission Society members arrive on same vessel with John Philip
1830   Wesleyan missionaries settle in Pondoland, Buntingville MS established.
           From 1830 Rhenish missionaries active in Western Cape and Namaqualand
1834   6th Frontier War to 1835
           Berlin Missionary Society members arrive at Cape, found Bethany MS
1835   Six ABM missionaries arrive in Cape Town: Lindley, Wilson, Venable, Aldin
           Grout, Champion, Newton Adams – some to Ndebele people others to Natal
           Nov: 3 ABM missionaries travel to Natal taking Charles and James Brownlee sons
           of Rev John Brownlee as interpreters
1836   Start of the Great Trek
           Jakob Ludwig Döhne of BMS founds Bethel MS among Xhosa
           John Philip LMS takes Jan Tshatshu, a converted chief of the Ntinde, to England
           Both give evidence before Select Committee of House of Commons on Aborigines
           in British Settlements.
           Richard Birt becomes LMS missionary after hearing sermon by Jan Tshatshu in
1837   April: whites at Natal, fearful of Dingane, fortify the port
           Americans working among Ndebele move to Natal: Henry Venable and Andrew
           Wilson establish MS at Hlangezwa near Dingane’s capital
           Francis Owen CMS arrives in Natal
1838   Feb: Massacre of Piet Retief and comrades
           March: ABM missionaries and Francis Owen leave Natal for Cape 
           July: Richard Birt of LMS sails for SA
           16 Dec: Battle of Blood River: Zulu power broken for a generation
1839   Adams and Lindley return to Natal; Lindley ministers to Voortrekkers
           Adams transfers from Umlazi to Amanzimtoti: founds Adams MS
           Richard Birt LMS at Umxelo
1840   March: Dingane killed
1841   David Livingstone to Kuruman MS, works with Robert Moffat and marries
           Moffat’s daughter Mary; later goes on explorations in Central Africa
1842   Conflict between British & Trekkers at Port Natal
           Hans Christian Knudsen of RMS arrives
1843   Berlin MS established at Emmaus Natal
           Natal annexed as a British colony
1844   Hans Paludan Smith Schreuder founds Norwegian mission in Zululand
1846   7th Frontier War ‘War of the Axe’ to 1847
           Lovedale MS converted into a fort
           Jan Tshatshu  fought against the colony, took part in attack on Fort Peddie
1847   Lewis Grout (not related to Aldin Grout) of ABM founds station on Umsunduzi
           River Natal
           James Allison brings Christian Swazis to Natal, establishes Italeni then Edendale          
           Lindley ABM founds Inanda station Natal
           Adams to Amanzimtoti, founds Adams MS
           W C Holden begins independent mission among Zulus in Natal
1848   Richard Birt LMS founds Peelton MS named after Sir Robert Peel
           Ommund Oftebro of Norwegian Mission arrives in Zululand; also Larsen &
1849   Dean Green builds Natal’s first Anglican Mission Church – in his own          
1850   8th Frontier War ‘Mlanjeni War’ Battle of Boomah Pass 24 Dec
           Paris Evangelical Missionary Society operating eleven MS in Basutoland and
           north of Caledon River.
           ABM missionaries in SA include Adams, Aldin Grout, Lewis Grout, Bryant,
           McKinney, Rood, Marsh, Ireland, Abraham, Wilder, Tyler
           Bishop Gray (C of E) visits Natal
           11 separate missionary agencies operating in SA
1852   Jean Allard consecrates Pietermaritzburg’s first Roman Catholic Church; later
           works among Zulu and Basuto, also mission at Kimberley diamond fields
1853   End of 8th Frontier War
           Refugees return to Peelton MS
           John William Colenso consecrated Anglican Bishop of Natal; undertakes       
           missionary work and education of Zulus
           3 Roman Catholic Vicariates established: Western under Griffith, Eastern under
           Devereux and Natal under Allard
1854   Sir George Grey becomes Governor of the Cape
           Hermannsburg founded by Hermannsburg Mission Society near Greytown
1855   Colenso brings 40 Anglican missionaries to Natal
1856   German Legion come to SA
1857   Great Xhosa cattle slaying, thousands die in resulting famine
           Tiyo Soga, Xhosa missionary and ex-Lovedale scholar, studies in
           Scotland, is ordained in Presbyterian Church; later returns to SA to work among
           Mpande’s son Umkongo is placed at SPG MS Ekukanyeni for education
1858   Eli Wiggill Wesleyan Methodist missionary among Bechuana, converts to
1859  Thomas Brockway missionary in charge of Peelton 1859-65, 1867-69, later to
1860  Merensky & Grützner to work among the Swazis; later among Basuto & Bapedi
1861  Sir Philip Wodehouse succeeds Grey as Governor of the Cape
          Church at Mgwali, built by Tiyo Soga, opened on 23 July
          John Aitken Chalmers Presbyterian missionary at Mgwali later writes book on
1864   Rev Dr Alexander Duff visits British Kaffraria; Convenor of Free Church of
           Scotland Mission Committee; pioneer of mission education
1865   John Colenso excommunicated after schism in Church of England in Natal
           S M Samuelson opens new SPG MS at St Paul’s near Kwamagwaza
1866   SPG rules that none of its missionaries should be subject to Colenso
1868   Tiyo Soga moves to Gcalekaland
1869   Zululand made a separate missionary Bishopric under Dr T E Wilkinson (to 1875)
1871   15 Nov Jubilee of Glasgow Missionary Society at Burnshill Kaffraria           
1874   Bishop Jolivet (Roman Catholic) succeeds Jean Allard in Natal Vicariate
1876   Otto Witt Swedish missionary arrives in Zululand
1877   Gcaleka war or Gaika rebellion to 1878
1879   Anglo-Zulu War (Isandlwana & Rorke’s Drift)
           George Smith SPG missionary vicar at Estcourt becomes chaplain to British
           forces; is present at battle of Rorke’s Drift
1880   Basuto War or Transkei rebellion to 1881
           Pinkerton of ABM to Gazaland, dies of fever 1883
1881   1st Anglo-Boer War (Majuba)
           Johannes Arndt founds Lutheran mission on Kimberley diamond fields
1882   Mariannhill Natal founded by Trappists (Roman Catholic)
           Schreuder of Church of Norway died; succeeded by Nils Astrup (ordained 1902)
1883   Salvation Army begins SA mission
           Bible translated into Zulu edited by SC Pixley of ABM
           Mariannhill promoted to Abbey status
1888   Jubilee of Peelton MS
1889   Church of Sweden Mission began mission work at Dundee Natal among mine
1892   SA Baptist Missionary Society founded
1893   H D Goodenough ABM starts work at Johannesburg, mission to mining area
           4 ABM missionaries to Mt Silinda, Eastern Rhodesia
1894   ABM at Chikore near Sabi River Rhodesia
1896   SA Compounds and Interior Mission to native labour on Witwatersrand goldfields
1899   2nd Anglo-Boer War (Sieges of Ladysmith, Kimberley, Mafeking)
1903   Herero uprising disrupts missionary operations 
1906   Bambata Rebellion Natal
1910   Union of SA declared
           More than 30 missionary agencies operating in SA, 2000 missionaries; ratio of
           missionaries to native population: 1 to every 3,500
           World Missionary Conference, representatives of all Protestant missionary
           bodies assemble in Edinburgh

Missionary Oftebro and family


MS = Mission Station
LMS = London Missionary Society (Congregational)
CMS= Church Missionary Society (C of E)
BMS = Berlin Missionary Society
ABM = American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions
GMS = Glasgow Missionary Society (Presbyterian)

SPG = Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (C of E)

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