Monday, December 29, 2014

Slave Bell, Durban





Slave Bell, Botanic Gardens, Durban




Plaque near Slave Bell





Bill S Crowder and Co. Landing and Shipping Agents April 1877 'To Landing 77 liberated slaves on SS Natal', Phoenix Wharf, the Point, Port Natal.

Sunday, December 28, 2014

Vintage Swimwear: continuing the beach theme


The big cover-up ...




Hmmm ...swimwear or Pierrot costume?



There should be less than 5 inches of thigh visible .... says the inspector.

Les Girls ...





These chaps look pretty good despite the knitted costumes ...



Started off all right then it just got silly ...



Not very flattering those knitted one-piece male costumes ....




No bikinis here ...


Saturday, December 27, 2014

Saturday, December 20, 2014

The Hello Girls: Telephone Exchange, Durban



Hello Girls operating telephones at the exchange:
among them was my Great Aunt Dorothy Moffatt nee Swires (below)







The Telephone Exchange, Durban circa 1915




















Thursday, December 18, 2014

Christmas Day in the Victorian Army


The following is an adaptation from an undated magazine article in Strand Magazine. The regiment in question is not named so for the purposes of this article let us call them the 2nd Battalion Rutlandshires.




Life in Victorian times was a tough undertaking, many men 'escaped' into the Army which was only marginally better in conditions and attitude. Christmas Day occurs every year and so Christmas Day 1879 dawned for the 2nd Btn Rutlandshires. Every season has its own sense of importance but preparations for this day of days takes a special turn in attitude and feeling. The officer class and enlisted men largely drop their class differences and become soldiers in barracks at Christmas. The General Return Of the Army in Victorian times shows some 223,000 enlisted men and many of these saw service in foreign lands for up to 20 years or so.
Differences between the officers and men were relaxed to a certain extent and preparations were underway for Dec 25th. Christmas Day in the Army was characteristically an organised affair with nothing left to chance. An air of solemnity was observed in the traditions of this day. Each man had a heavy burden of individual responsibility. Large quantities of both liquid and solid refreshments were procured, a great change from the Spartan diet usually endured by the men at this time.

The officers added to the fund with game and many a bottle to fuel the festive gatherings. The canteen funds swelled as this day approached. Barrels of ale, stout and porter appeared along with wine but little or no spirits. These supplies were taken in charge by the Colour Sergeant of each company and kept under lock and key until lunch on the 25th. As the great day loomed closer, the men were seen undertaking many a festive activity - stoning raisins for the puddings, divesting goose, duck and turkey of feathers, fashioning festoons of coloured paper and wreaths of holly. Men were detailed to act as messengers between the cookhouse and men's barracks, the cooks having risen at an unseemly hour to make good the food to be served later in the day. At 6am reveille sounded on the barrack square by the duty bugler: Christmas Day had arrived!

Even before the last note had died away in the frosty air, the barracks of some 700 men were already a hive of activity, lights twinkling from many windows, scores of men moving along dimly lit passages to perform their necessary ablutions, once completed the rooms swept clean and dusted, beds made up as laid down in standing orders (I love that line). No drill today but Army Sunday routine observed. Once breakfast is over Church Parade takes over. 'Fall In' occurs at 10.30 am, many a soldier, though, being fortunate to have leave with families elsewhere. Today there are 350 men attending the Garrison Church, once everyone is inside the Chaplain commences the service. Being a former soldier himself he knows that a long service would not be the thing and delivers a more cheerful sermon than is usual.

On conclusion of the service the men are marched back to their barracks and dismissed, during their absence 'cook's mates' have been busy getting the food ready, tables decorated, ceilings and walls gaily garnished with festive decorations. Much liquid of a beer nature is seen in every room. At 20 minutes to one the peal of the bugler playing 'Come to the cookhouse doors me lads' can be heard and the designated orderlies rush to the cookhouse to receive from their company cooks the food allocated to each mess. A batch of helpers is carving and serving up the now eagerly sought-after food. Food is taken to those on duty, and at one o'clock the bugle sounds again and the men sit down to start the feast.

Junior NCOs act as waiters to their comrades; cheerful demands for more turkey and duck ring out amongst the popping of corks and consumption of ale, beer barrels rapidly emptying. In comes the Company Colour Sergeant and calls 'Attention!', his keen ears having heard the clink of sword and spur on concrete floor: this heralds the visit of the Colonel, his adjutant and duty officer of the day. The Colonel wishes the men a Happy Christmas and turns to leave, this is the cue the Colour Sergeant was waiting for, as was the Colonel, knowing the procedure from past Christmases in the barracks.




'Beg pardon, sir, the men would like to drink your health'. 'Thank you, Colour Sergeant'. 'Sherry or port, sir?' - advancing to the two black bottles put aside for this very purpose, trying to recall what each one contained. 'Whatever comes first, Colour Sergeant,' retorts the Col. 'Just a little though, if you please', knowing he and his party will go through this more than once today. 'A Company Attention!' bellows the Colour Sergeant in a stentorian voice, 'I propose the good health and long life of the Colonel and all the officers. Pte Jones, keep your hands off that plum duff for half a minute.' Many heartfelt epithets are sounded, the Colonel is well loved by his men and his reply follows:

'Men of A Company 2nd Rutlandshires, I am much gratified at the honour you have bestowed on me, enjoy yourselves and have a very happy Christmas.' At this point he picks up his sword and leaves with his party to the next Company where this is repeated once again. A great deal of toasting and well wishing continues throughout the day. Pte Jones tucks into his plum duff barely looking at the falling snow which appeared as if on cue. The Colonel retires to his quarters as do the officers and Sergeants to celebrate the Festive Day in their own manner. Much smoking and merriment ensue from the men, singers are encouraged to exercise their talents and problems are forgotten. At nightfall some of the men get into walking out dress and pursue the taverns of the town, the barracks now largely deserted. At 9:30 pm a roll call is taken and three quarters of an hour later the duty bugler plays 'Lights Out' on a crisp and white barrack square, thus proclaiming the official end to Christmas Day 1879.

My good wishes to everyone and a worry-free Christmas to all, 
Graham Mason, AZW Researcher

Sunday, December 14, 2014

New book on SS Waratah


South African author Andrew van Rensburg’s new volume Waratah Revisited: The True Story of a Ship's Mysterious Disappearance is now available online through Amazon.

http://www.amazon.com/Waratah-Revisited-Andrew-Van-Rensburg/dp/3710319447























From the book jacket:

Waratah mystery solved!
'The crowds dispersed slowly as the new ship
disappeared around a bend in the river. For most,
this would be their last view of a ship destined to
vanish into history'.
'Sawyer’s ticket was booked through to Cape
Town, but nothing could induce him stay on the
Waratah a moment longer'.
'Late into the night and overwhelmed with
frustration McLaughlin ranted about setting fire
to the Waratah'.
'There was no other explanation for the
unyielding advance of the large steamer'.
'Something of great significance was unfolding
off the Wild Coast'.
'Circumstances on the Waratah had taken a turn
for the worse within the last few hours and the
great liner trembled and rolled’
'The Waratah and her souls were abandoned at
sea'.


The author gets right down to the nitty-gritty offering various theories - including his own - for the Waratah’s hitherto inexplicable disappearance. Contemporary material such as the Board of Trade Inquiry as well as more recent data are presented and compared.

If you are a Waratah Watcher you can’t do better than buy a copy for Christmas.

Copies will also be on sale soon at Adams bookstore, Durban..

Saturday, November 22, 2014

Thursday, November 20, 2014

Recent UK dedications for Rorke's Drift men





Pte. J. Manley 'A' Coy 2nd Btn 24th (2nd Warwickshire) Regiment, present at the Defence of Rorke's Drift (Section C-C4 grave 89 Nottingham)







Pte. D. Lewis (James Owen) 'B' Coy 2nd Btn 24th (2nd Warwickshire) Regiment, present at the Defence of Rorke's Drift (Bethel Cemetery)








Acknowledgements:
Graham Mason, Tim Needham
















Wednesday, November 19, 2014

Looking for Lumley (Anglo Zulu War) Descendant in Natal


Mole is seeking David Moon of Pietermaritszburg, descendant of Lumley, regarding Zulu War ancestor. Please make contact via this blog.  Thank you.





See continuation of Lumley story at 

Sunday, November 16, 2014

Tracing a Military Man 6


Map showing the Thrre Towns, including Stevenston

It’s easy enough, through Census records, to track Finlay Gibson’s career subsequent to his settling in Stevenston, Ayrshire. 

He appears not to have remained part of his sister’s household for long, meeting and marrying Annie Bell on 20 May, 1881, and setting up his establishment elsewhere. Being an employee at the Dynamite Factory, Finlay and his family qualified for quarters in Nobels Villas in Dynamite Road. Not as cheerless as nearby Ardeer Square, the Villas did not offer any great heights of luxury but they were a secure roof over the Gibsons’ heads and convenient for work at the dinnamit.

www.threetowners.com/recollect/cunningham_b.htm  Bill Cunningham's potted history of Nobels Villas and the conditions in which people lived there.









By 1891 Finlay and Annie Gibson née Bell are listed residing there with five children, all born in Stevenston: Ann, aged 8, Catherine, 6, Mary, 5, Margaret, 4, and William, 2. The birthplace of Finlay’s wife Annie is given as Canada (West) and her age as 32 – 16 years younger than her husband – a considerable disparity.

Finlay is described as a British Subject and his occupation given as Gatekeeper.

Annie Bell’s parents were Samuel Bell and Catherine Thomson Ross. Both were English by birth, but Samuel Bell’s father, another Samuel, had been born in Scotland.  How Annie came to be born in Canada is another story. 

The Gibsons were still at Nobels Villas in 1901, when Finlay, aged 60, was working as ‘Cartridge Foreman’. His daughters, Ann, at 18, and Maggie, 15, were also employed at the dinnamit. Kate (Catherine) was a draper’s assistant and young William was in school.


Annie Bell Gibson, my grandmother,
daughter of Finlay Gibson and Annie Bell

Chimneys of Stevenston

Girls employed as cartridge makers







For readers with an interest in the background, much more about the Dynamite Factory and Stevenston and its environs can be found on the informative Threetowners’ site.

Stevenston historian John Millar's book on the Ardeer Factory is an enthralling in-depth look at this topic. [In the Shadlow of the Dynamite: Ardeer]

Ardeer Square:


Bridgend, ,Stevenston












Saturday, November 15, 2014

Souvenir Saturday: Umzinto School Cadets 1897

Umzinto School Cadets 1897
Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee Celebrations, Natal

Standing L to R:
Thomas Bruce Bremner, Baldwin W Pennington, Alecie E Schreiber, Guy Metcalfe, George Whitfield, Alexander Langlands, Ernest J Smith (7th from left), Lynn Pennington, Joshua Charles (Jock) Landers,  Reginald Metcalfe

Seated in front L to R:
Bernard Schreiber, Norman Fletcher, Keith Stewart, Sam Woods, Douglas Crocker,  Cecil Stewart,  Harold Thomas Landers





Tuesday, November 11, 2014

Remembrance Day 2014




They shall grow not old, 
as we that are left grow old:
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun and in the morning
We will remember them.  

L Binyon










A group of black South Africans on the Western Front. These men had contracted to work in the South African Native Labour Contingent (SANLC). In general the native police and NCOs were recruited from tribal chiefs or high-status native families. Some 20,000 South Africans worked in the SANLC during the war. They were not meant to be in combat zones, but there were inevitable deaths when the docks or transport lines on which they worked were bombed. 

The greatest tragedy was the sinking of the troopship SS Mendi on February 21, 1917, when 617 members of the SANLC were drowned in the English Channel. http://altyn73.livejournal.com/570420.html




Sunday, November 9, 2014

Tracing a Military Man 5


William Gibson’s military records show that he emerged unscathed at the end of his twenty-year stint in the army. This might indicate that he did not serve at the hotspots of Isandlwana and Rorke’s Drift, at least, though there were, of course, other engagements during that conflict – many of them less well-known to posterity.

Here, regimental records, combined with William’s own service documents, provide a useful timeline. If it is not known precisely which company of his battalion the ancestor was in it is difficult to be precise about where he was and when. A general picture, however, can be obtained.

Apparently, William did not arrive in Natal until after the two famous battles mentioned above were over. His unit, 2/4th Foot (King’s Own Royal Regiment) had been stationed at North Camp, Aldershot, in the first week of December 1878, when orders were received to proceed to Natal on active service. Perhaps this came as a welcome break for William who had been at Aldershot since August 1877; now he would see a part of the world he hadn’t visited before.. The change from cold winter weather in England to the blazing heat of the plains of Natal and Zululand would have been a culture shock for the troops.



Durban harbour from the Bluff during the Anglo-Zulu War


Various companies were embarked in the transports Dunrobin Castle and the Teuton, sailing for Cape Town and Durban. The united companies were marched to Pietermaritzburg from Durban – about a fifty-mile hike in full kit -  and here they heard the devastating news of Isandlwana and the subsequent heroic defending action at Rorke’s Drift.




Those desperate engagements might have been too much excitement for William’s taste. There was, however, plenty more to come.

Several companies of William’s battalion were marched to Helpmekaar, and from thence to Utrecht and Greytown. Other reinforcements still garrisoned in Cape Town were brought up the coast in the African, a privately owned mailship, and later marched from Durban to Pietermaritzburg and onward up-country. Their route was swarming with the enemy, who kept mainly out of sight. Three companies, with Major Blake and Capt Moore, were surrounded by a Zulu impi but were not attacked. The battalion was distributed over a wide area, including the Utrecht district, Luneberg etc and on 28 March were involved in the battle at Inhlobana Hill. Some 2nd/4th casualties were incurred at Kambula.

Shortly before William had left Aldershot he had been promoted Sergeant on 25 November 1878. This step-up lasted only until 11 May 1880 when William misbehaved again (details not given), was sent back to Preston in England and subsequent to a trial he was reduced to the rank of Private on 2 June 1880. He forfeited 1d pay.

It was the end of the Zulu War for William as well as the end of his army career: he took his discharge on 17 August 1880, while his battalion went on to distinguish themselves in further action during the closing stages of the conflict.



William Gibson's Discharge Papers


William Gibson was certainly not cut in the heroic mould but was one of those hundreds of ordinary British soldiers who fought ‘Victoria’s little wars’, more out of necessity and circumstance than any feelings of patriotism or duty. Perhaps this makes their contribution all the more laudable. Despite the odds and any personal fears, they were prepared to ‘Stand To’ in the face of a warlike foe which was fiercely defending the Zulu homeland. William was finally able to retire peacefully to Ayrshire together with his brother and their sister’s family. After the vicissitudes of his twenty years’ service he would have been entitled to draw his army pension. I believe he had earned it.









Saturday, November 8, 2014

Souvenir Saturday: Anglo-Zulu War group photo includes Chard of Rorke's Drift


Lt John Rouse Merriott Chard, VC, one of the heroes of Rorke's Drift,
with other officers of the Royal Engineers. Chard is wearing his decoration.


Read The Anglo-Zulu War in Soldiers' Letters by Frank Emery at




Chard Medal Group

Thursday, November 6, 2014

Anglo-Zulu War: William Roy DCM and some confusion

I am amazed at the facts about the Anglo-Zulu War which are still hidden in the mists of time and folklore. Far too often 'facts' reported in follow up books and publications need revision every now and again. 

Look at QM Bloomfield 24th as an example, oft reported married once with (issue) one child when in fact he was married TWICE with THREE children. However this article is not about him but of a Scotsman who saw his life over before 40 but somehow ended up in the 24th and was fighting for his life with his comrades on Jan 22nd 1879. I have written about William Roy, 1st 24th before including his voyage to Australia and his death a few short years after his arrival.





William Roy won the DCM (Distinguished Conduct Medal) on that fateful day so long ago, just what he did I am not sure: the 11 VC holders we know to the edge of a razor blade how they came by the coveted Cross, not so the DCM holders of which there were 5 awarded that day. I have recently got documentation which confirms the wedding of William Roy DCM and that he had a daughter when in Australia. Sadly that little girl did not survive long, was this due to the climate or the bad health of her father (William Roy).

The fact that the widow Roy re-married and eventually died in 1948 is testament to her toughness which can be accredited to Scottish stock. Roy himself was not born in Dundee nor indeed Edinburgh but in fact in Portmoak Kinrosshire. Yes he enlisted in Edinburgh Castle and lived in Dundee with his parents at 316 Hawkhill Dundee prior to his emigration to Parramatta in NSW Australia to the home of his brother John Roy. It was believed and hoped that the climate might be beneficial to William as his health was in a bad way at the time. He only lived in Parramatta for 7 years until his death in 1890.

William Roy married Cecilia Butchart on the 27th Oct 1882 in Monifieth Parish, Dundee. Williams parents had married in Portmoak in 1845 where today a glider school takes advantage of the hills and terrain in the area. The island in Loch Leven which Portmoak skirts is famous as the goal of Mary Queen of Scots, the prison with no bars because it is reported that Mary could not swim although I don't know of any evidence to support this. There is not much there today let alone in 1845/46. At the time of his marriage to Cecilia, she was living in Tay St Dundee while William was living William was living close by in Hawkhill as stated earlier.

Cecilia was the daughter of the local station-master while William was a porter at the same station, the obvious place where they first met. What is not generally known is that William served in the 32nd Regiment before his transfer to the 24th. Had he been with the column at Isandlwana, well we all know what happened there! William joined the 32nd Regt on the 13th Aug 1870. He had a terrible medical record throughout his career and was at Rorke's Drift as a result of malaria and eye problems. He deserted on the 16th Oct 1876 and was imprisoned, he transferred to the 24th on the 4th Dec 1877. He did transfer to the 2/24th in 1879 but after Rorke's Drift.

John his brother was a Church warden in Parramatta and it is believed he persuaded William and Cecilia to join him in Australia, however Cecilia did not travel with her husband but arrived on Christmas Eve 1883 in Australia aboard the 'PERICLES', she travelled under her maiden name, I am not sure why nor indeed why she did not travel with William, cost ?, maybe someone can enlighten me please?. They had a daughter called BEATRICE CECILIA ROY who was born on the 23 Nov 1886 in Brisbane but died on the 27 Feb 1888. It is not known why the birth took place in Brisbane and not Parramatta. There is no mention of the death of Beatrice on the death certificate of William Roy indicated on his death certificate by his brother John is , 'NO ISSUE', we do not know why.

Cecilia re-married and her husband was one EDWARD WILLIAMSON and they had a number of children. In 1948 when Cecilia died she was buried with her first husband, her second husband Edward and her daughter by William Roy, amazingly the location of the grave is unknown because the records have gone missing or have been destroyed (?).


On the 15th Sept 1948 in the 'Cumberland Argus and Fruit Growers Advocate' is the report of the death of Cecilia Williamson formerly Roy nee Butchart. I have traced the BUTCHART'S back TO 1798 and descendants of Cecilia to the present day. One last twist to the story is this. William was a Presbyterian by birth but is buried in the Baptist section of Parramatta Cemetery. A possible explanation is the following:

Parramatta has NO general cemetery, there was the large St John's (C of E) cemetery established c1790 about a mile down the road from the church of that name. The Presbyterians and Baptists were given an acre each for their cemeteries in the 1840's. They were run by their own trusts till the 1970's but they adjoin each other and have a single perimeter fence and collectively known as Mays Hill Cemetery. John Roy was the caretaker of St John's Anglican Church for nearly 10 years and lived next door to the Church. When William moved to Hunter St Parramatta it was some 8 doors down from his brother. There was no ground left for burials in the Baptist section of the cemetery and so the Anglicans were approached when William died. The Anglicans purchased the grave site to allow Beatrice Roy to be buried there in 1888. William died in 1890 and was buried with his daughter. Cecilia died in 1948 but is buried with both husbands and her daughter by William! So we have four people buried in the same plot, the last in 1948 and the location 'missing'.

A final footnote to this story is of course we have a PRESBYTERIAN buried in a BAPTIST grave and the ceremony (1890) performed by an Anglican minister! John Roy goes out of the picture at this point, no records of his demise seem to be available in NSW Australia, it may be possible he went back to Scotland after the death of his brother and parents (?). I sense more research is needed!

My eternal thanks and gratitude to, 'STAN' and Mr and Mrs Gray for the additional information.nI add the report of the death of Cecilia.

Sept 15th 1948: Parramatta NSW Australia
A link with the massacre of Rorkes Drift, in 1879 has been broken by the death at her home in Philip St, Parramatta, of Mrs Cecilia Williamson aged 92. Her first husband, ex-Private (Cpl) William ROY of the 24th Regiment, was one of the handful of men who survived the massacre of the regiment by the Zulus. Wounded during the battle Roy was a patient in a field hospital which the Zulus set on fire. Despite his wounds he played a leading part in rescue work. For his gallantry Queen Victoria personally presented him with a medal 'For Distinguished Conduct on the field' and a bible inscribed: "Souvenir of Rorke's Drift Jan 22nd -23rd 1879".

Invalided from the Service, Roy married in 1882, at Forfar, Scotland, Cecilia Butchart, youngest daughter of the local station - master. An account of the couples arrival in Parramatta, and Roy's subsequent early death, appeared in the Argus in 1885, it read: "The hardships and exposure Roy had been subjected to made sad inroads on an originally robust constitution: and his brother, John Roy, of Parramatta, he came to this colony in the hopes of recruiting his failing health."
"He had not been here two years before his sight, which had been failing some time, was entirely lost; and, blind and paralysed, he lingered on till Friday night last, when death released him from his sufferings. His remains were interred in the Baptist Cemetery, Parramatta , on Sunday afternoon, two of his old comrades, from Sydney being amongst the little band of mourners who watched the earth deposited over the remains of the departed" .

Mrs Williamson's most treasured possession was a reproduction of the famous painting now in the Sydney Art Gallery, showing the escape from the burning hospital. The central figure in the painting is Private Roy carrying a wounded comrade to safety. In 1892, Mrs Roy married Edward Williamson of Parramatta who died in 1920. A son and two daughters of the marriage survive. Mrs Williamson was laid to rest in the Baptist Cemetery Parramatta, on Thursday, beside the ill-fated hero of Rorke's Drift.

Also buried in the same grave are her daughter by W Roy and her second husband. The location is not known as the records have been lost/destroyed.



Detail from Alphonse de Neuville's painting OF THE dEFENCE OF rORKE'S dRIFT
 showing wounded escaping from burning hospital





Graham Mason Anglo-Zulu War Researcher

Wednesday, November 5, 2014

Anglo-Zulu War: Pitfalls in Researching an Ancestor

Even after all the passage of time from that fateful day of 22 January 1879 till the present there are many issues cloaked in mystery and ignorance. 

Life in 'civvy street' in Victorian London or any other major city of the time was grim to say the least; infant mortality was extremely high, mothers had, in many cases, ten or more children, and if four or five survived beyond 12 years of age they were doing pretty well in some of the really slum areas, especially in London.





To escape the grinding poverty and rampant illiteracy many a young man turned to the forces to escape this thankless life. Once again to quote my favourite example, Fred Hitch later to win a VC at Rorke's Drift was at the time of his enlistment a farm labourer and illiterate. I often wonder which was worse: to be the wife of a private soldier or suffer the harsh regime of a private soldier in a foot regiment (Infantry). There were no allowances made to wives and children of private soldiers, unlike today, and married quarters were still to come. A man could be sent to India and not see England for 18 years or more. Quite often the only concession to a married man was a blanket drawn across a bed-space at the end of a barrack room. No time for niceties in those days!

In 1879 a man had the choice of enlisting into one of the following: Infantry, General Service, Artillery or finally the Cavalry. Unlike today a man was usually accepted with little or no vetting into the Infantry: life was cheap and no questions asked. You could in certain regiments enlist as a boy and gradually work your way until you reached the age of 18 when you were considered a man - odd when you think that you were considered a youth till the age of 21 and could not get married below this age without consent of pare
nts, a soldier had to ask permission from his commanding officer to get married back in Victorian times.

In one famous case, a certain man got married without his commanding officer's permission but escaped punishment: this was Driver (Royal Engineers) Charles Robson, batman to a certain Lt Chard RE. A driver RE received a little extra pay as opposed to a Sapper. After much research I realised that the crafty recruiting Sgts played a 'fast one'. The optimum age to enlist was, as stated, 18, and this was true for all four elements at the time. However, to enlist in either the Artillery or Cavalry you had to serve a minimum of 12 years. In the Infantry or in the General Service it was 10 years if aged 18 or over at the time. If you were 17, you had to serve the extra year plus the minimum requirement of 10 years if joining the infantry.

Very soon it was realised that if details on the enlistment sheet were 'lost' there was no way of checking if a man was signing up for 10 or 12 years. In many cases an alias was used and a wrong age indicated. In some cases the enlistment sheet survived and this is when this anomaly presented itself to me. As there were different enlisting forms a person could sign up on a Cavalry form for 12 years when in fact it should have been 10 (Infantry). This meant in many cases a man serving 2 extra years plus any shortfall years below the age of 18.

A lot of enlistment sheets are missing but by the same token a lot survived. I even have papers where you can see the 10 years crossed out and 12 inserted and also the reverse! Where papers do survive it is the attestation sheet that survives. You had to enlist first, then usually within 3 days attest (make a definite commitment to service). Men signed for 6 years in the regulars and 6 years in the Reserves in which time, if not already dead in battle or of fever, were liable to be recalled to do further service both in the UK and abroad.

There was no choice at first as to what regiment you served in, which is why men from Eire, London and Bristol served together. If a regiment was under strength the next batch of 40 to 60 men were sent to a particular 'holding brigade' before being allocated to a particular regiment. In the case of the 24th Regt of Foot it was 25 Brigade. Look at the casualty lists for Isandlwana with regard to the 1/24th. Many men have, as an example, 25 B/1234 Pte John Anybody. This meant that an individual was still held in a holding unit but served with the 24th, attached but not actually part of the regiment as yet. So we have the situation where Pte J Anybody enlisted under a false name, lied about his age, was recruited falsely, and it was often found that he changed units. When a man was granted a change of regiment he was given another number, his old number being allocated to another man. We find Pte Anybody wants to return to his old unit, does so and gets yet another different number! Very confusing when it comes to obtaining service records or pension details.

At the termination of this article there will be a list of books to refer to with regard to the casualty lists of the battle at Isandlwana (in the main). It was not until the Cardwell reforms of 1881 that the rules were changed and a man kept his number from enlistment till discharge, and regiments of Foot were given titles, such as the Essex regiment, Lancashire regiment etc. The 24th became, of course, the South Welsh Borderers. Many an author still refers to these men at Isandlwana and Rorke's Drift as being in the South Welsh Borderers but this change of title only occurred after the reforms. A man often took to the army life and re-enlisted after 12 years or even beyond 21 years in many cases.

Frank Bourne of Rorke's Drift found himself a Colour Sgt in the 24th at the tender age of 23. For every two years good conduct a man got an extra one penny a day pay and a good conduct stripe to indicate this. A maximum of six could have been awarded during a man's service. These could be traded in for rank so a Cpl with three Good Conduct stripes could 'cash in' two and go to C/Sgt (Colour Sergeant). In the case of Sgt Windridge of Rorke's Drift he went from Private to Quarter Master, back to Private and finally to Sgt. A fondness for the black bottle was his undoing.
To make my life as a researcher more difficult the service papers of a man killed in action were destroyed: the 1/24th took their service papers into battle and these were all lost after the action was finally over that January day. 

To make matters worse a large number of service papers were destroyed in the Second World War due to the action of the Luftwaffe. Despite all these obstacles we have barely touched the surface on research matters and I hope new facts will still emerge.

For the casualty returns mentioned, I advise you to look in the following books in particular.
1. Casualty Roll for the Zulu and Basuto wars, South Africa 1877-79 IT Tavender (JB Hayward & Son ISBN 0-903754 24X)
2. They Fell Like Stones: John Young (Greenhill Books ISBN 1- 85367-096-0)3. The Roll Call for Isandhlwana and Rorke's Drift, 1879: Julian Whybra (Roberts Medals Publications ISBN 1-873058-0-1)4. The Silver Wreath, 24th Regt at Isandhlwana and Rorke's Drift, 1879: Norman Holme (ISBN 0-906304-02-4)


Graham Mason, AZW Researcher

Tuesday, November 4, 2014

Anglo-Zulu War: Replacements and Ulundi


I think by now we all know what occurred at Isandlwana on Jan 22nd 1879, the British army lost a lot of men that day, the Zulu nation even more of course. Something had to be done to fill the many gaps as a result of this huge loss in man-power on the British side. The call went out, leave was cancelled, regiments mobilised and volunteers came forth, out of a sense of duty or revenge?, perhaps a piece of both?. One of these regiments was the 21st or as it was known, Royal Scot Fusiliers. This fine old regiment was also known as The 21st Royal North British Fusiliers. They lined up beside the 58th regiment at Ulundi - but I am getting ahead of myself as usual.

Before I relate  what the 21st did in South Africa a little on the regiment itself. The 2nd Battalion who participated in South Africa was formed in Paisley, Scotland in April 1858, the first Commanding Officer was Col Last who had been in the 99th before this appointment.

By December 1858 the 2nd Battalion was in Newport, Wales, moves to Aldershot, Dover, Ireland followed. Foreign service began in 1863 to Madras then Burma and Rangoon. On the 1st May 1872 the Fusiliers were caught up in a severe cyclone at Madras, thanks to the efforts of the 21st ships and their crews and many passengers owed their lives to these men. And the people of Madras as a thanks gave the Officers Mess a large silver vase.

By 1873 the regiment was back in Scotland when in 1874 it again moved to Aldershot and then to Portsmouth, back to Scotland in Nov 1877. By 1878 the regiment moved to Ireland when a call went out in 1879 after news of the losses reached these shores, the regiment was put on active service conditions. From the depot in Ayr, volunteers from regiments serving in Ireland, the 2nd Battalion left Curragh Camp under the command of Col W Pole Collingwood for Cork. On the 20th Feb 1879 they boarded the 'City Of Paris' and set sail for South Africa. On the 21st March they were in sight of Table Mountain in the face of a severe gale, hoping to make Simon`s Bay before nightfall. At about 8 pm the ship ran onto Roman Rock.

The Ayr Advertiser reported, It was very dark, it was blowing a gale, and there were 1100 men on deck. The Captain gave his orders, with coolness and courage from the bridge; the boats were made ready for lowering, signals of distress were sent up, and all were prepared for the worst. The Scots Fusiliers behaved with admiral coolness, nothing could have been better, the young fellows vying with their older comrades in their apparent contempt of danger. Happily for all on board, the gale, now increasing, catching the ship on the port side, at the same time as the reversed engines pulled her back, pushed her off the rocks; and putting on full steam we now went ahead, and passing through forbidden water, over sunken rocks, we got in into Simon's Bay with no water to speak of in the hold. An episode is worth reporting of the good behaviour of the men. The instant the ship struck the rock, the quartermaster at the wheel uttered an exclamation of horror, and crying, "all is lost!" made a rush to the nearest boat. Two or three young soldiers at once seized the wheel, and did their best to steer the ship until another quartermaster could be got hold of.

The battalion was transferred to the HMS Tamar for the trip to Durban, where it arrived on the 31st March 1879. At Durban bandsmen were issued rifles but the pipers and bugle players retained their instruments. By the 3rd April the Fusiliers left Durban and on the 5th April arrived at Pietermaritzburg and received a warm welcome from the locals. Fort Newdigate was constructed and two companies of the Scots Fusiliers, along with two Gatling guns, a company of Basutos, and a troop of the 1st Dragoon Guards made up the little garrison. A march ensued to the Upoko River where a skirmish had taken place on the 5th June 1879. Waiting there for supply wagons. Fort Marshall was constructed, with two companies of Fusiliers along with a squadron of the 17th Lancers. In overall command was Brigadier General Collingwood. On the 18th June the remainder of the battalion resumed its march. By the time of Ulundi on July 4th the 2/21st were lined up with the 58th regiment, Regimental Colours were unfurled and bands began to play.


Ulundi Memoria



Chelmsford got his troops in a favourable position with his front facing Ulundi about a mile to his east. The first Zulu were seen at about 8:30 am on July 4th. After the savage defeat of the Zulu at Ulundi, Chelmsford received orders from Sir Garnet Wolseley on July 8th to bring the sick and wounded to Fort Newdigate. Chelmsford was camped at EULONGANENI and had decided there to resign his command and leave for home. In closing his parting speech he said the following, "For the courage, coolness, and devotion you have all displayed wherever I have been with you, my best and warmest thanks are due. For the unselfish devotion, untiring energy, and good humour with which you have encountered hardship, fatigue, and privation I find it hard to express my gratitude sufficiently. In all senses you have done your duty as British soldiers!."


Lord Chelmsford
The withdrawal started on the 10th July, and four days later they had passed Fort Marshall; with wounded and sick men being escorted to Ladysmith by two companies of the Scots Fusiliers and Bengough's natives. The regiment had started to break up on July 26th on the banks of the Upoko river, with various elements going to different locations. Other engagements took place in South Africa for the 21st but that is a different story. The Zulu nation had been broken at Ulundi and later the then British Prime Minister (Gladstone) had commented on the loss of 10,000 Zulu and for what reason when in the cold light of dawn the historians and record keepers gave the post-mortem on the Anglo Zulu War of 1879.



Graham Mason AZW Researcher